### Chapter 8. Testing for Differences in Mean and Proportion: Paired Samples t-test

### Confidence Interval for a Mean Difference

Confidence Interval for a Population Mean Difference

Assuming the *sampling distribution of the sample mean difference *is (approximately) normal, the general formula for computing a #C\%\,CI# for a population mean difference #\mu_D#, based on a random sample of #n# difference scores, is:

\[CI_{\mu_D}=\bigg(\bar{D} - t^*\cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}},\,\,\,\, \bar{D} + t^*\cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} \bigg)\]

Where #t^*# is the *critical value *of the #t_{n-1}# distribution such that #\mathbb{P}(-t^* \leq t \leq t^*)=\frac{C}{100}#.

Calculating t* with Statistical Software

Let #C# be the *confidence level *in #\%#.

To calculate the *critical value* #t^*# in Excel, make use of the function **T.INV()**:

\[=\text{T.INV}((100+C)/200, n \text{ - } 1)\]

To calculate the *critical value* #t^*# in R, make use of the function **qt()**:

\[\text{qt}(p=(100+C)/200, df=n \text{ - } 1,lower.tail = \text{TRUE})\]

A researcher conducts an experiment in which #11# randomly selected students are invited to eat dinner at a restaurant on two different evenings. On one evening each student receives a regular-size plate and on the other they receive a large-size plate.

On each occasion, the students are allowed to choose as much food as they want from a buffet. Once the students have made their selection, their plates are weighed.

The table below shows how much food (in grams) each student chose when they were a given a regular-size plate #(X)# and when they were given a large-size plate #(Y)#:

Student | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |

#X:\,\text{Regular}# | 344 | 415 | 395 | 395 | 412 | 346 | 382 | 386 | 370 | 327 | 381 |

#Y:\,\text{Large}# | 373 | 380 | 439 | 378 | 428 | 403 | 364 | 461 | 382 | 373 | 403 |

You may assume that the amount of food eaten for either plate size is normally distributed.

Define #D=Y-X# and construct a #94\%# confidence interval for the population mean difference #\mu_D#. Round your answers to #3# decimal places.

#CI_{\mu,\,94\%}=(-0.809,\,\,\, 42.809)#

There are a number of different ways we can compute the *confidence interval*. Click on one of the panels to toggle a specific solution.

Compute the difference scores:

Student | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |

#X:\,\text{Regular}# | 344 | 415 | 395 | 395 | 412 | 346 | 382 | 386 | 370 | 327 | 381 |

#Y:\,\text{Large}# | 373 | 380 | 439 | 378 | 428 | 403 | 364 | 461 | 382 | 373 | 403 |

#D:\,\text{Difference}# | 29 | -35 | 44 | -17 | 16 | 57 | -18 | 75 | 12 | 46 | 22 |

Assuming the amount of food eaten for either plate size is normally distributed, we know that the

*sampling distribution of the sample mean difference*is normally distributed as well.

If the

*sampling distribution of the sample mean difference*is (approximately) normal, the general formula for computing a #C\%\,CI# for a population mean difference #\mu_D#, based on a random sample of size #n#, is:

\[CI_{\mu_D}=\bigg(\bar{D} - t^*\cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}},\,\,\,\, \bar{D} + t^*\cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} \bigg)\]

Compute the mean of the difference scores #\bar{D}#:

\[\bar{D}=\cfrac{\sum{D}}{n} = \cfrac{29-35+44-17+16+57-18+75+12+46+22}{11}=21.0\]

Compute the standard deviation of the difference scores #s_{D}#:

\[\sum{D}=29-35+44-17+16+57-18+75+12+46+22=231\]

\[\begin{array}{rcl}\sum{D^2}&=&29^2+(-35)^2+44^2+(-17)^2+16^2+57^2+(-18)^2+75^2+12^2+46^2\\&&+22^2\\&=&16489\end{array}\]

\[s_{D}=\sqrt{\cfrac{\sum{D^2} - \cfrac{(\sum{D})^2}{n} }{n-1}}=\sqrt{\cfrac{16489 - \cfrac{231^2}{11} }{11-1}}=34.1145\]

For a given

*confidence level*#C# (in #\%#), the

*critical value*#t^*# of the #t_{n-1}# is the value such that #\mathbb{P}(-t^* \leq t \leq t^*)=\cfrac{C}{100}#.

To calculate this critical value #t^*# in Excel, make use of the following function:

T.INV(probability, deg_freedom)

probability: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.deg_freedom: The mean of the distribution.

Here, we have #C=94#. Thus, to calculate #t^*# such that #\mathbb{P}(-t^* \leq t \leq t^*)=0.94#, run the following command:

\[\begin{array}{c}

=\text{T.INV}((100+C)/200, n - 1)\\

\downarrow\\

=\text{T.INV}(194/200, 11 \text{ - } 1)

\end{array}\]

This gives:

\[t^* = 2.12023\]

Calculate the lower bound #L# of the confidence interval:

\[L = \bar{D} - t^* \cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} = 21.0000 - 2.12023 \cdot \cfrac{34.1145}{\sqrt{11}}=-0.809\]

Calculate the lower bound #U# of the confidence interval:

\[U = \bar{D} + t^* \cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} = 21.0000 + 2.12023 \cdot \cfrac{34.1145}{\sqrt{11}}=42.809\]

Thus, the #94\%# confidence interval for the population mean difference #\mu_D# is:

\[CI_{\mu_D,\,94\%}=(-0.809,\,\,\, 42.809)\]

Compute the difference scores:

Student | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |

#X:\,\text{Regular}# | 344 | 415 | 395 | 395 | 412 | 346 | 382 | 386 | 370 | 327 | 381 |

#Y:\,\text{Large}# | 373 | 380 | 439 | 378 | 428 | 403 | 364 | 461 | 382 | 373 | 403 |

#D:\,\text{Difference}# | 29 | -35 | 44 | -17 | 16 | 57 | -18 | 75 | 12 | 46 | 22 |

Assuming the amount of food eaten for either plate size is normally distributed, we know that the

*sampling distribution of the sample mean difference*is normally distributed as well.

If the

*sampling distribution of the sample mean difference*is (approximately) normal, the general formula for computing a #C\%\,CI# for a population mean difference #\mu_D#, based on a random sample of size #n#, is:

\[CI_{\mu_D}=\bigg(\bar{D} - t^*\cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}},\,\,\,\, \bar{D} + t^*\cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} \bigg)\]

Compute the mean of the difference scores #\bar{D}#:

\[\bar{D}=\cfrac{\sum{D}}{n} = \cfrac{29-35+44-17+16+57-18+75+12+46+22}{11}=21.0\]

Compute the standard deviation of the difference scores #s_{D}#:

\[\sum{D}=29-35+44-17+16+57-18+75+12+46+22=231\]

\[\begin{array}{rcl}\sum{D^2}&=&29^2+(-35)^2+44^2+(-17)^2+16^2+57^2+(-18)^2+75^2+12^2+46^2\\&&+22^2\\&=&16489\end{array}\]

\[s_{D}=\sqrt{\cfrac{\sum{D^2} - \cfrac{(\sum{D})^2}{n} }{n-1}}=\sqrt{\cfrac{16489 - \cfrac{231^2}{11} }{11-1}}=34.1145\]

For a given

*confidence level*#C# (in #\%#), the

*critical value*#t^*# of the #t_{n-1}# is the value such that #\mathbb{P}(-t^* \leq t \leq t^*)=\cfrac{C}{100}#.

To calculate this critical value #t^*# in R, make use of the following function:

qt(p, df, lower.tail)

p: A probability corresponding to the normal distribution.df: An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.lower.tail: If TRUE (default), probabilities are #\mathbb{P}(X \leq x)#, otherwise, #\mathbb{P}(X \gt x)#.

Here, we have #C=94#. Thus, to calculate #t^*# such that #\mathbb{P}(-t^* \leq t \leq t^*)=0.94#, run the following command:

\[\begin{array}{c}

\text{qt}(p = (100+C)/200, df = n \text{ - } 1, lower.tail = \text{TRUE})\\

\downarrow\\

\text{qt}(p =194/200, df = 11 \text { - } 1, lower.tail = \text{TRUE})

\end{array}\]

This gives:

\[t^* = 2.12023\]

Calculate the lower bound #L# of the confidence interval:

\[L = \bar{D} - t^* \cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} = 21.0000 - 2.12023 \cdot \cfrac{34.1145}{\sqrt{11}}=-0.809\]

Calculate the lower bound #U# of the confidence interval:

\[U = \bar{D} + t^* \cdot \cfrac{s_D}{\sqrt{n}} = 21.0000 + 2.12023 \cdot \cfrac{34.1145}{\sqrt{11}}=42.809\]

Thus, the #94\%# confidence interval for the population mean difference #\mu_D# is:

\[CI_{\mu_D,\,94\%}=(-0.809,\,\,\, 42.809)\]

#\phantom{0}#

Connection to Hypothesis Testing

There exists a direct connection between a *two-sided paired samples* #t#*-test* for #\mu_D# and a #(1-\alpha)\cdot 100\%# confidence interval for #\mu_D#:

- If #0# falls
*inside*the #(1 - \alpha)\cdot 100\%\,CI#, then #H_0: \mu_D=0# should not be rejected at the #\alpha# level of significance. - If #0# falls
*outside*of the #(1 - \alpha)\cdot 100\%\,CI#, then #H_0: \mu_D=0# should be rejected at the #\alpha# level of significance.

*#90\%#*confidence interval for a population mean difference #\mu_D# is #(-0.301,\,\, 2.493)#.

Suppose you use the same sample of difference scores to test #H_0: \mu_D = 0# against #H_a: \mu_D \neq 0# at the #\alpha = 0.10# level of significance.

What would be the conclusion?

Since the #90\%# confidence interval #(-0.301,\,\,2.493)# contains the value #0#, we would not reject #H_0: \mu_D = 0# at the #\alpha = 0.10# level of significance.

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