### Numbers: Fractions

### Adding and subtracting fractions with like denominators

The fractions #\tfrac{1}{\blue 5}# and #\tfrac{3}{\blue 5}# have the same denominator.

When fractions have the same #\blue{\text{denominator}}#, we call them fractions with **like denominators**.

**Example**

#\tfrac{2}{\blue 7}# and #\tfrac{3}{\blue 7}# have **like denominators**

When adding fractions with like denominators, the #\blue{\text{denominator}}# does not change.

The numerators **do** change. We add the #\orange{\text{numerators}}# to each other.

In general:

*When adding fractions with like denominators, we add the numerators while the denominator stays the same.*

**Example**

\[ \frac{\orange1}{\blue5} + \frac{\orange3}{\blue{5}} = \frac{\orange{1}+\orange{3}}{\blue{5}} = \frac{4}{\blue{5}} \]

When subtracting fractions with like denominators, the #\blue{\text{denominator}}# does not change.

The numerators **do** change. We subtract the #\orange{\text{numerators}}# from each other.

In general:

*When subtracting fractions with like denominators, we subtract the numerators while the denominator stays the same.*

**Example**

\[ \frac{\orange5}{\blue7} - \frac{\orange3}{\blue{7}} = \frac{\orange{5}-\orange{3}}{\blue{7}} = \frac{2}{\blue{7}} \]

#\begin{array}{rcl}\displaystyle {{1}\over{8}}+{{3}\over{8}}&=&\dfrac{4}{8} \\ &&\phantom{xxx}\blue{\text{adding the numerators while the denominators remain the same}} \\ &=& \displaystyle {{1}\over{2}} \\ &&\phantom{xxx}\blue{\text{simplified by dividing numerator and denominator by }4} \end{array}#

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