### Chapter 7. Hypothesis Testing: Introduction to Hypothesis Testing (p-value Approach)

### Assumptions of the Z-test

The following assumptions are required to hold in order for a #Z#-test to produce valid conclusions:

**Random sampling**

The process of inferential statistics heavily relies on the assumption that the selected sample is *representative* of the population it is drawn from. Using a random sampling method helps to ensure the representativeness of the sample.

**Independent observations**

Two observations are said to be independent when the occurrence of one observation does not influence the chances of the second observation occurring. If the population is at least #10# times as big as the sample, you may assume that the observations are independent.

**Normal sampling distribution**

In order for a #Z#-test to produce valid results, the sampling distribution of the #Z#-statistic has to be (approximately) normally distributed.

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